• The chemical process by which molecules such as glucose are broken down anaerobically is called fermentation.
  • There are 3 main types of fermentation (and several others, besides): lactic acid fermentation, ethanol fermentation, and hydrogen and methane gas production.
  • Fermentation has many functions such as adding new flavors and textures to food, extending the shelf life of foods, making some nutrients more easily absorbed by the body, and providing an environment for probiotics to grow and reproduce.

The fermentation process consists of four stages:

(1) Inoculum Preservation

(2) Inoculum Build-up

(3) Pre-Fermenter Culture and

(4) Production Fermentation.

  • Fermentation enables cells to produce chemical energy from the breakdown of sugar without the help of oxygen.
  • Louis Pasteur discovered fermentation in 1857.

Fermented foods provide many health benefits such as:

1. Anti-oxidant

2. Anti-microbial

3. Anti-fungal

4. Anti-inflammatory

5. Anti-diabetic

6. Anti-atherosclerotic activity.

  • Fermentation reactions occur in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  • The science of fermentation is called “zymology”.
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  • The earliest record of fermentation dates back as far as 6000 B.C.
  • Fermentation is divided into 3 recognized phases; lag, active and stationary phase. During fermentation, wort sugars are consumed, with new yeast cells forming with ethanol and CO2 produced as well, along with flavor compounds.
  • Fermentation reactions are important for cells because they enable the cells to continue to produce energy in the absence of oxygen.
  • One of the most popular fermented foods globally is yogurt, which has been consumed in certain parts of the world for thousands of years.
  • Fermentation is a type of biochemical reaction that's able to extract energy from any carbohydrates in a solution without needing to use oxygen.
  • Many organisms use the fermentation process to live.
  • Fermentation is an ancient technique for preserving food. The process is still used today to produce foods like wine, cheese, sauerkraut, yogurt, and kombucha.
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Fermented fruit types

  • Mangos.
  • Apples.
  • Blueberries.
  • Strawberries.
  • Raspberries.
  • Blackberries.
  • Peaches.
  • Fermentation takes roughly two to three weeks to complete fully, but the initial ferment will finish within seven to ten days.
  • Kombucha, ginger beer, kvass, and kefir are fermented drinks.
  • You can lower your chances of high blood pressure by eating fermented foods.
  • Fermented foods could help lower your risk for conditions like diabetes, heart problems, and obesity.

However, some people might experience severe side effects after consuming fermented foods like:

  • Bloating.
  • Headaches and migraines.
  • Histamine intolerance.
  • Food-borne illness.
  • Infection from probiotics.
  • Antibiotic resistance.
  • Alcoholic fermentation is a biotechnological process accomplished by yeast, some kinds of bacteria, or a few other microorganisms to convert sugars into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.

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